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关键字:词典

湛约翰于1852 月抵达香港,在英华书院教书,并负责英华书院印刷所的工作,18591879 年,他作为香港与广州的新教传道站负责人,在广州居留了二十年。在此期间,湛约翰编撰了《初学粤音切要》(A Chinese Phonetic Vocabulary1855)、《英粤字典》(185918621870187818911907)、《广州方言袖珍词典》(1872)、《简明康熙字典》(1882),另译有《哲学家老子》(1868)。这些著作中又以《英粤字典》流传最广,初时为袖珍词典,后经多次补充修订,收词量不断扩大。笔者使用版本为1859 年第一版以及1907 年第七版,其中《1859》为美国密歇根大学图书馆藏本,共159 页,收词9568 条;《1907》为加利福尼亚大学图书馆藏本,共822 页,收录了词语、俗语和例句约共万余条,其中词11926 条。


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探索中国特色大国外交之路——王毅部长在第二届世界和平论坛午餐会上的演讲

Exploring the Path of Major-Country Diplomacy with Chinese Characteristics—Remarks by Foreign Minister Wang Yi at the Luncheon of the World Peace Forum

 

2013年6月27日27

 

June 2013, Tsinghua University

 

尊敬的各位嘉宾,

女士们,先生们,朋友们:

 

 

 

Distinguished Guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Dear Friends,

 

很高兴出席第二届世界和平论坛。感谢清华大学和中国人民外交学会为举办这次盛会所作的努力。中华民族历来是热爱和平的民族,中国始终奉行和平的对外政策。面对和平与发展的时代,从中国,从北京,从这个论坛,向世界发出和平的声音,传递和平的理念,播撒和平的种子,既是国际社会对中国的殷切期待,也是当代中国应尽的国际责任。今天上午,李源潮副主席在讲话中,围绕和平与安全这两大命题,全面阐述了中国方面的原则主张,强调中国始终是维护和平的坚定力量,呼吁树立互信、互利、平等、协作的新型安全观,对论坛发挥了重要引导作用。我预祝论坛取得圆满成功。

 

It gives me great pleasure to attend the second World Peace Forum. I wish to thank Tsinghua University and the Chinese People’s Institute of Foreign Affairs for putting together this grand gathering. The Chinese people are peace-loving and China is committed to a foreign policy of peace. In this era of peace and development, our gathering will send the voice and idea of peace to the world and sow the seed for peace. This is what the international community expects from China and what today’s China should undertake for the world. In his remarks this morning, Vice President Li Yuanchao expounded on China’s propositions regarding the two themes of peace and security. He underscored that China is a staunch force for peace and called for a new security concept featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination. His words have played an important role in steering the forum discussion. I wish the forum a great success.

 

当今世界正在发生前所未有的变化。经济全球化和社会信息化加速发展,使各国正在成为更加利益交融的命运共同体,同时也面临着更加纷繁复杂的全球性挑战。如何维护和平、促进发展,是国际社会共同面临的紧迫课题。
 
The world today is undergoing changes as never seen before. Given the growing trend of economic globalization and the fast emergence of an information society, countries are forming a community of common destiny with more intertwined interests. At the same time, they also face more complex global challenges. How to uphold peace and advance development is the pressing task in front of the entire international community.

 

当代中国与外部世界的关系也正在发生前所未有的变化。双方在更深程度上相互依存,在更广范围内相互影响。中国的发展越来越离不开世界,世界的发展也越来越离不开中国。

 

China’s relations with the outside world are also changing as never before, as the two are increasingly inter-dependent and interact with each other on a larger scale. China needs the world more than ever before to develop itself and vice versa.

 

今天的中国,已经成为128个国家的最大贸易伙伴,还是世界上增长最快的主要出口市场、最被看好的主要投资目的地,以及能源资源产品的主要进口国。2012年,中国对亚洲经济增长的贡献率已经超过50%,并已成为推动世界经济增长的主要引擎之一。2008年国际金融危机爆发以来,中国不仅向国际货币基金组织投入资金,向面临困难的国家伸出援手,还以自己坚实稳定的增长,与新兴市场国家一道,支撑起全球经济复苏的希望。

 

Today’s China is the biggest trading partner for 128 countries, a major export market with the fastest growth, the most popular investment destination and a major importer of energy and resource products. In 2012, China accounted for more than 50% of Asia’s economic growth and has become one of the major engines driving world economic growth. Since the outbreak of the global financial crisis in 2008, China has not only made contribution to the IMF and extended a helping hand to countries in difficulty, but also resorted to its own steady and robust growth and together with other emerging market countries, sustained hope for global economic recovery.

 

一个持续快速发展,并且拥有13亿人口的大国,将在全球事务中扮演什么样的角色,对外奉行什么样的政策,对世界产生什么样的影响?对这些问题,世界在关注,中国也在思考和探索。

 

For a big country with 1.3 billion people that enjoys sustained and fast growth, what kind of role will it play in global affairs, what foreign policy will it follow and what impacts will it have on the world? The world is interested in these questions. China is also thinking about and exploring these questions.
 
以习近平为总书记的中国新一届中央领导集体成立以来,团结带领全国人民为实现两个百年目标和民族复兴的中国梦而奋力开拓,在外交上不断采取新举措,推出新理念,展示新气象,新时期的中国外交更具全球视野、更富进取意识、更有开创精神。可以说,在继承新中国外交六十多年形成的大政方针和优良传统的基础上,当代中国正在积极探索走出一条有中国特色的大国外交之路。

 

China’s new central leadership with Mr. Xi Jinping as the General Secretary has, since day one, rallied and led the Chinese people in working hard for the realization of the two centenary goals and the Chinese dream of national renewal. On the diplomatic front, it has taken new measures, put forward new ideas and presented a new image. China’s diplomacy in the new era has taken on a more global perspective with a more enterprising and innovative spirit. On the basis of carrying forward the major foreign policies and fine diplomatic traditions of over 60 years since the founding of the People’s Republic, today’s China, I would say, is actively exploring a path of major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

 

中国外交的特色,立足于中国作为发展中国家的基本国情。按经济总量计算,中国已经成为世界第二大经济体,但按人均收入排名,中国仍位列世界80多位,依据联合国确定的标准,中国仍有超过1亿的贫困人口,这种看似矛盾的现象世界历史上从未有过。我们清醒地意识到,发展不平衡仍然是中国的基本国情,发展中大国仍然是中国的基本定位。中国还并非富国强国。要让13亿中国老百姓真正过上幸福生活,我们还有很长的路要走。

 

The features of China’s diplomacy are based on China’s basic national conditions as a developing country. True, China is the second largest economy in aggregate terms. But in terms of per capita income, it is still behind more than 80 countries. And according to UN criteria, over 100 million people in China still live in poverty. Such seeming paradoxical phenomenon is something unseen in world history. We are soberly aware that uneven growth is still the basic reality in China and a big developing country is still what China is. Indeed, China is neither rich nor strong. There is still a long way to go before the 1.3 billion Chinese people can truly live a happy life.

 

这一基本国情要求我们,中国的外交首先还是要紧紧围绕国家发展这个中心,服务发展,促进发展,更加积极有效地为全面建成小康社会营造良好的外部环境,为解决各种不可持续的问题,为维护中国在世界上不断延伸的正当权益提供更为有力的保障。

 

Given this basic reality, when conducting diplomacy, we must first and foremost stay focused on serving and promoting the central task of development. We must work more vigorously and effectively to create a sound external environment for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society. And we must provide stronger safeguard for addressing problems in sustainable development in China and for the extension of China’s legitimate rights and interests in the world.

 

这一基本国情启示我们,中国的外交应当紧紧抓住发展这把解决世界诸多问题的钥匙,更加突出互利共赢,促进共同发展。加强同世界各国的经济联系和政策协调,不断扩大同有关国家的优势互补和互惠合作,大力推进贸易投资的自由化和便利化进程。

 

Given this basic reality, when conducting diplomacy, we must be fully committed to development, which holds the key to numerous problems in the world. We must lay more emphasis on mutual benefit and boost common development. We must scale up economic ties and policy coordination with countries around the world, expand complementarity and win-win cooperation with relevant countries and vigorously advance trade and investment liberalization and facilitation.

 

中国外交的特色,植根于中国坚持的社会主义理念。我们坚持的中国特色社会主义,植根于中国这块土地,符合中国自身的发展规律,引领着中国的发展和进步,得到广大中国人民的坚定拥护,是经过实践反复检验的正确道路。坚持这一道路和理念,要求我们对内追求公平正义、共同富裕、社会和谐,对外主持公道、捍卫公理、伸张正义。

 

The features of China’s diplomacy are rooted in the socialist ideas that China follows. The path of socialism with Chinese characteristics that we are committed to is grown out of the land of China and consistent with its development trend. It has led China to development and progress and enjoys strong support from the Chinese people. It is a path proven correct time and again by practice. To follow this path and approach means that we must work for fairness, equity, common prosperity and social harmony internally and seek, safeguard and uphold justice externally.

 

坚持这一道路和理念,要求中国的外交摒弃任何丛林法则,坚持大小国家一律平等,坚持反对任何形式的霸权主义,坚持推进国际关系民主化,反对以大欺小、以强凌弱、以富压贫,反对干涉别国内政。中国在当今的国际和地区热点问题上始终坚持对话谈判解决问题,反对武力至上,搞政权更迭,维护的不是一己之私,而是国际道义和国际关系基本准则。

 

To follow this path and approach means that in conducting diplomacy, we must advocate equality between all countries regardless of their size and promote democracy in international relations. It means that we must reject any law of the jungle, oppose any form of hegemonism, oppose the big, the strong and the rich bullying the small, the weak and the poor, and oppose interference in other countries’ internal affairs. China maintains that international and regional hotspot issues must be addressed through dialogue and negotiation and opposes worship for force or seeking regime change. This is not for our own selfish interests, but rather, for the sake of international justice and the basic norms governing international relations.
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温家宝在第六届夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式和企业家座谈会上答问

奋力开创中国经济更加光明的未来


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2012/09/06 来源:YNET.com 北青网
◆ 日本◎木梅
在东京期间,发现日本孩子入幼儿园时,居然要“考试”!而且还很严格,只有通过考试
的孩子才有资格入园,根本不像国内这样宽容——到了上幼儿园的年龄,只要在语言沟通等
方面基本合格就可以了。
知道入园需要考试,是源于我陪邻居、首次当母亲的铃木带着她的女孩爱美,去幼儿园
报名时见到的情形。当天,有近百名孩子等在幼儿园的门口,按照来的先后顺序,幼儿园的
老师给每个孩子都编好了号,10 人为一组。
因为我们去得比较早,因此爱美被编为7 号。考试正式开始时,老师让1 到10 号的小
朋友们,进到一个房间里,而他们的家长们则可以通过一面透明的玻璃墙观看到房间里面的
状况,以及自家孩子的各种表现。我看见房间里只摆放着一张长方形桌子,大小和家里用的
餐桌差不多。
之后只听老师说:“小朋友们,请把这张桌子搬到隔壁房间里去。”小朋友们都高兴地说
好,然后就开始一起动手搬。
可是,我们却看到,爱美不知道是什么原因,居然没能挤到桌子旁边去。结果桌子被其
他小朋友给围搬了起来,她搭不上手,因此只好呆呆地站在原地,不知道如何是好。
几分钟后,搬桌子活动结束,只见老师没好脾气地大声叫道说:“谁是7 号的家长?”
铃木赶紧走上去答道自己是。老师说:“带回去吧,不予录取,明年再来!”
铃木当时就傻眼了,问为什么呀?结果老师是这样回答的:“从小就没有团队合作精神,
一点家教(?)都没有。”
 

铃木被老师的这番话羞辱得恨不得钻到地下去,只好带着爱美,招呼上我,灰头土脸地
回去了。
因为入不了园,铃木只好抽时间自己照顾爱美,非常不便。此后的一年时间里,铃木在
家里重点培养爱美的团队合作精神,因为她害怕来年爱美继续过不了幼儿园的入园考试关。
第二年,我便回国了,没能亲眼看到爱美的考试,但是通过电话从铃木那得知,第二年
的入园考试,其内容居然又变了——不再是搬桌子。
那么具体又是什么新内容呢?铃木详细地解答了我的疑问。
她说,孩子们也是被叫进一个房间里,但是房间里放的不再是一张桌子,而是一个茶桶;
5 个外形和外观各不相同的茶杯——有些好看,上面绘有各种好玩的卡通漫画;有些难看,
什么图画都没有;另外一个装有冷白开的水瓶。
一次进入的同样是10 个孩子,但他们被分成2 组。老师先让其中一组的5 个孩子坐下
来,然后让另外一组的5 个孩子给坐下来的5 个孩子泡茶、送水喝。
在整个过程中,老师还观察泡茶、送水这组的5 个孩子,谁会去争抢那些外形比较好看
的杯子,谁又会有秩序地排队,甚至是谦让别人;另外,他们倒水时会不会把水洒到桌子上
或地上,如果洒了,会不会立即擦去,或告诉后面的其他小朋友注意别踩到、滑倒了。
而对于那些坐着的5 个孩子,老师也会观察他们是只是坐在那里被动地等水、享受别人
给他们的服务,还是主动站起来、用双手去接茶杯并道谢。这个考试很简单,却很快就能知
道哪些孩子将被淘汰。
结果,爱美这次做得很好,顺利通过测试。这让铃木长长地出了口气,而有近七分之一
的孩子没有通过。
早就听说,在日本有一句话:“培养国家人才不是要从小学、中学或大学开始,而是要
从幼儿园开始!”通过爱美入园考试的这件事,我深切感受到这绝不仅仅只是一句口号或宣
传。

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http://www.shangwuhanyu.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/2011年中国语言生活状况报告教育部.pdf

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很多人都是死到临头才看清事实真相。整个晚清,清醒的只有曾国藩的幕僚赵烈文一人。他1867预言国家将亡的时候连曾国藩都不相信。因为这个时候,洋务运动刚刚开始,一切都呈现出欣欣向荣的景象。但赵烈文从当时官府明火执仗、社会两极分化、百姓穷困潦倒、朝中大臣无能的情况,当然还有外敌虎视眈眈的外部背景,推断清朝将在50年内灭亡。结果44年清朝就瓦解了。后年是辛亥革命100周年。直到1911年,清朝也不相信王朝会完垮掉,但仅仅因为一个士兵走火,革命就爆发了。秦始皇当年何等英雄?几个新兵一挥手就把秦朝推翻了,当时没有一个人料到这么强大的帝国,会突然完蛋。苏联解体前,也没有几个人预见到。所以,现在我在这里杞人忧天,也不会有多少人相信。 

  中国之所以没有特别强的危机感,一是我们到处喊和谐、和平,这本来是说给世界听的,却把自己的人们麻醉了。大家谁也不愿意想战争了。前不久在《环球时报》的那个关于未来十年发展的研讨会上,除了我跟王小东,谁都不提战争。复旦大学的沈丁力先生还从很高深的角度,论述了中国为了不会有战争。环球时报和稀泥,把我关于中国已被包围的文章跟他放一起发,交给中国人民自己去判断。

  第二,就是因为还有个同病相怜的俄罗斯。美国在搞中国的同时,也在肢解着俄罗斯。美国要想控制世界,必须搞掉中、俄,控制欧亚大陆。中俄无论谁先倒,另一个都会唇亡齿寒。美国经常搞计算机推演,二战结束以来,美国制定了一千多份战争计划。现在,我们也来推演一下美国的大战略目标实现的情况: 

  如果中国先被肢解,分裂成7到8个小国,将会和日本印度韩国一样,成为美国的盟国。俄罗斯也会趁机夺取,像它在近代史上一样。这样,为了争夺中国,美俄双方将大战。美国将会组织一支亚洲联军,配合北约,东西夹击俄罗斯。俄罗斯会孤注一掷,中国也可能成为俄罗斯核武器袭击的地方,人口大量消灭,但俄罗斯也会同归于尽。美国又是一举两得,一箭双雕。享受中国的廉价商品,骗取中国的巨额外汇,美国还是不满意的,因为对于美国来说,其最大利益是肢解中国,然后让分裂了的中国,彻底倒向美国,占有中国的人力资源,平时成为为美国和西方世界打工的奴隶,战时作为盟军士兵,成为美国称霸世界的炮灰。这个命运比清朝晚期还悲惨……

 

本篇文章来源于 www.xilu.com 原文链接:http://junshi.xilu.com/2012/0706/news_44_261493.html

 

如果俄罗斯先被解体,分裂的俄罗斯小国,也会和独联体那些国家一样,一个个加入北约,然后,从东西两边掐断对中国的石油和天然气供应。由于之前中国的海路已全面失守,海上贸易和能源通道控制在美国及其印度和日本盟国手上,此时中国只能束手就擒,接受为西方打工的地位。这很类似忽必烈征服中原之后,不杀汉人,而让汉人为他们交赋税养活它们的做法一样,也就是门蒂斯先生的G2安排。 

  美国已经从肢解苏联中得到巨大的好处,那些分裂了的小苏联,几乎都倒像美国,为美国提供政治支持和资源,以及安全纵深和盟军。苏联不解体,是一块压向美国的大石头,苏联解体,是美国砸像俄罗斯和未来中国的一堆石块。

  同样的道理,中国不解体,对美国构成战略压力;中国解体了,就是威胁日本、印度、俄罗斯的一堆石块。可以这么说,中国、俄罗斯解体了,美国的全球帝国地位就奠定了。因为欧洲已成破碎地带,印度本来就破碎,日本被骑在身下,美国还有什么敌人呢?至于***世界的恐怖袭击,只是全球帝国的治安事件。 

  只有从美国最深的战略动机出发,才能看透美国对华战略。看透美国对华全面战略包围,同时又组织针对中国的第五纵队的目的。 

  可以看到,台独力量,香港民主派,***;民运分子,达赖集团、热比娅集团,总后台无一不是美国,无一不是接受美国的政治、军事、舆论和经济支持。而美国支持这些中国分裂力量的目的,也只有一个,那就是让台湾和香港,不要融入大陆的统一发展进程,让大陆继续分裂,由外向内,最后解体。 

  中华民族真的又到了最危险的时候。黑格尔说:一个民族有一些仰望星空的人,他们才有希望。中国有几个这样的人?仰望星空的人,寥若晨星!中国太多的人,都在梦中。各有各的梦。

 

  当年曾国藩听了赵烈文的分析,叹了一口气,说“我日夜望早死”,他这么大的官,都觉得无力回天,又不愿意看到国家“抽心一烂”“土崩瓦解”的局面。 

  我们可以看中国的地图。我们一直认为是雄鸡形的。那就按雄鸡形理解。在中苏对峙的时候,我们是把东北部看做中国头部的,把西部看着中国的尾部。但是,现在,我觉得应该反过来看,西藏是我们的头部,新疆是我们的咽喉,东南沿海是我们的心腹,南海是我们的爪子。本来琉球还有一只爪子,清朝的时候,被日本砍掉了,现在也没有收回来。西藏为什么是我们的头部?因为我们的太空基地和很多战略设施都在这里。未来军事竞争、技术竞争,就是玩太空。没有太空工业,就没有国家的未来;新疆呢,是中国从中亚到内地的石油和天然气通道。美国为什么支持达赖和热比娅?就是放长线钓大鱼,有朝一日,用这两把刀,斩首中国,当然,握这两把刀的手,还是美国的手。美国不是想不想的问题,是时机成熟不成熟的问题。

 

本篇文章来源于 www.xilu.com 原文链接:http://junshi.xilu.com/2012/0706/news_44_261493_2.html

 

让我格外忧心的,除了上述国家经济构成、外部危机因素之外,还有就是军队改革进程太慢了。新型军队的口号,就我一个人在提。用“鹰击战略”取代“刺猬战略”的口号,就我一个人在喊。转型要从陆军形态向海空复合型转型也我一个人在提。我这么小的一个芝麻官,有什么用呢?

 外部的情况,危如累卵。其实最大的危险还不仅仅在于外部。 

  马克斯·韦伯批评当年针对德国统一后盛行于德国的“政治市侩主义”和弥漫在国民中的“软乎乎的幸福主义”。我们今天中国有没有这两种主义?我总是觉得今天的中国和拿破仑死后的法国一样,当时的法国,民族没有了灵魂,国家没有了方向,军队不会打仗,也不敢打仗了。 

  中国“胖乎乎的国民”被小财富腐蚀了灵魂,变得贪图享受,意志萎靡,懦弱不堪,全国到处灯红酒绿,纸醉金迷,洗浴中心之多,纵欲之风之盛,超过罗马帝国晚期。精英阶层厌战、怯战情绪浓烈。党政军办公大院,哪个不被高级饭店包围?一些贫困县也大盖楼堂馆所,这是什么?是中国的肿瘤!为什么不用这些钱投入高科技?七品官上路都开丰田霸道,小乡长也车接车送,一年中国光是吃喝和公车费用就是几千个亿,相当于一百多艘大型航空母舰。 

  学界掩耳盗铃,官场追名逐利,各界道德沦丧。南宋时有人问岳飞,天下怎么才能太平?岳飞说:文官不爱钱,武官不惜死,天下太平矣!看看今天的够级别、有实权的文官不爱钱有多少?武官呢,不惜死的有多少?原海军副司令王守业,大肆贪污,情妇一大群。窥斑见豹。有个很漂亮的穿军装的女演员,到处唱“今天是个好日子,赶上了盛世咱享太平”!海洋都快丢完了,还享太平!商女不知亡国恨! 

  19世纪初,美国刚刚崛起。他们的民族精神是什么样子的呢?我们看看他的总统的一个演讲就知道,他说:“如果我们要成为真正伟大的民族,我们必须竭尽全力在国际事务中起巨大的作用……懦夫,懒汉,对政府持怀疑态度的人,丧失了斗争精神和支配能力的文质彬彬的人,愚昧无知的人,还有那些无法感受到坚定不移的人们所受到的巨大鼓舞的麻木不仁的人──所有这些人当然害怕看到他们的国家承担了新的职责,害怕看到我们建立能满足我国需要的海军和陆军,害怕看到我们承担国际义务,害怕看到我们勇敢的士兵和水手们把西班牙的军队赶出去,让伟大美丽的热带岛屿从大乱中达到大治……如果我们不参与这种必须以生命和珍爱的一切去获取胜利的激烈竞争,那么比我们野蛮强大的民族将甩开我们,控制整个世界。因此,让我们勇敢地面临生活的挑战,决心以男子汉大丈夫的气概去完成我们的职责,用我们的誓言和行动来维护正义……只有通过艰苦危险的斗争,我们才能取得我们民族进步的目的。” 

  在这段话之前,他拿同时代的中国做对比:“我们决不能扮演中国的角色,要是我们重蹈中国的覆辙,自满自足,贪图自己疆域内的安宁享乐,渐渐地腐败堕落,对国外的事情毫无兴趣,沈溺于纸醉金迷之中,忘掉了奋发向上、苦干冒险的高尚生活,整天忙于满足我们肉体暂时的欲望,那么,毫无疑问,总有一天我们会突然发现中国今天已经发生的这一事实:畏惧战争、闭关锁国、贪图安宁享乐的民族在其它好战,爱冒险的民族的进攻面前是肯定要衰败的……” 

  罗斯福说这个话的时候,中国刚割了台湾,赔了巨款。上面慈禧过着六十大寿,底下人民也自得其乐,居然不思卧薪尝胆。 

 

本篇文章来源于 www.xilu.com 原文链接:http://junshi.xilu.com/2012/0706/news_44_261493_3.html

 

这个时候的中国人是什么样的?看看一个叫副岛种臣日本人对中国清朝政府的评价:

 

  “谓中国海军之可虑,则实不足以知中国也。盖中国之积习,往往有可行之法,而绝无行法之人;有绝妙之言,而绝无践言之事。先是以法人之变,水军一旦灰烬,故自视怀惭,以为中国特海战未如人耳……于是张皇其词,奏设海军衙门,脱胎西法,订立海军官名及一切章程,条分缕析,无微不至,无善不备。如是,而中国海军之事亦即毕矣。彼止贪虚有其名,岂必实证其效哉?又何曾有欲与我日本争衡于东海之志哉?” 

  日本早已看透清政府办海军“止贪虚有其名,岂必实证其效”的本质。“所以,下决心向中国开战。 

  1931年张学良因为丢了东北,被中国人唾骂,于是到欧洲游历,暂避风头。1934年他回来,比较欧洲和中国的社会,他说欧洲的物质文明建设给他留下深刻印象,主要是三点:”一是公民拥戴领袖,领袖忠诚无私;二是西方学者精于学术,有铁棒磨成针的的精神,反观中国,教师为金钱,学生为文凭,对国家的贡献只限于摇旗呐喊;三是人民在和平的口号中麻木。欧洲虽然也厌战,但备战也急到万分,中国居然没有一点备战意识。“说和平对内是可以的,对外则是骗人的,当今世界的、能奋斗才能生存。这一年,蒋介石对中国的评价是这样的:”现在,绝大多数中国人的精神状态是浑浑噩噩,毫无生气。在行动中表现为好歹不识、是非不辨、公私不分。由此,我们的官员虚假伪善,贪婪腐败;我们的人民斗志涣散,对国家福利漠不关心;我们的青年颓废堕落,不负责任;我们的成年人则淫邪险恶,而又愚昧无知;有钱人纵欲放荡,花天酒地;而穷人则体弱污秽,潦倒于黑暗之中。所有这些导致政府的权威和纪律扫地以尽、荡然无存,终于引起社会动乱,使我们在天灾和外敌入侵面前束手无策,无能为力。“此时,中国已丢了东三省,日本军正站在山海关上,眺望中原,中国人居然还是这个样子。 

  今天,2009年的中国人,比那个时候的中国人好到什么地方了?有一种车,2500万美元,全世界只有5辆,3辆在中国!可是,这么富有的国家,面对周边所有的挑衅,没有一次有雄性反应的,美其名曰”韬光养晦“,鲁迅时期,阿Q只一个,现在到处都是!现在很多中国人不仅不敢迎接战争,连谈论都不干谈。一些国家屠杀华侨,不敢动用军队。当年祖国遭入侵,多少华侨救祖国,现在华侨遭难,我们却不能去救,作为军人我真是仰天长啸!连去年某太平洋岛国动乱,外国媒体猜测中国可能会派军舰接侨民,我们的学者一连几声反对,认为不可行,不可能,吓得尿裤子。军队就是为国家利益为人民服务的,怕什么呢?军队是让别人怕的,可是我们自己的那些号称足智多谋的学者,自己先害怕了,贻笑大方! 

  前两次中国被洗劫,从国策上看都是中国步步退让导致的:1840年从虎门退到北京的圆明园;第二次是从琉球退到北平的卢沟桥。总想息事宁人,结果引火烧身。它进一步,你拿点肉,它当然得寸进尺了。日本当年占了东三省以后,也曾经试探苏联,结果苏联派出朱可夫杀鸡用牛刀,用机械化军杀日本的步兵军,一下子熄灭了日本北上的念头,又沿着华北蹂躏中国了。这世界永远是欺软怕硬。今天,世界又在东海、南海、西南亚、中亚和东北亚对中国步步进逼了。中国还有什么地方可以退?还有什么多余的肉可以喂狼? 

  当年八国联军入侵北京的时候,他们一边烧圆明园,一边想:万一有一天中国起来了,他们的青年,拿着跟欧洲一样的武器,到欧洲复仇怎么办?所以,当一个中国古董商给他们出主意挖清朝皇帝陵墓的时候,他们拒绝了。但是,一百多年过去了,那一幕永远也不可能发生了。中国人有那个志向吗?所以,有时候我一听到有些中国学者说,中国不能去救自己的华侨,不能去收回自己的领土、领海,怕人家说中国威胁论,就非常恶心:威胁世界?你配吗?你有那个能力,有那个雄心吗?你以为你是汉武大帝的后裔还是成吉思汗的后裔?自作多情! 

本篇文章来源于 www.xilu.com 原文链接:http://junshi.xilu.com/2012/0706/news_44_261493_4.html

 

9月15号,一个叫马克斯。麦克亚当的英国人在《环球时报》发表文章说,“中国人是世界睡觉冠军”。说的是他在中国各个场合的见闻。这真是个敏感的人。一个一个爱睡觉的中国人,构成了爱睡觉的中华民族。一个爱睡觉的民族,又演绎了一部爱睡觉的历史。1840年悲剧为什么会降临到中国头上?那是因为之前中国已经在睡梦中失去了资本主义革命时代;为什么后来又是长达一百年的悲剧?是因为中国人始终睡眼朦胧,直到卢沟桥拂晓的枪声响起。 

  拿破仑当初认为中国是一头睡狮,我要说,拿破仑错了!他离中国太远了,没有看清楚。那不是一只睡狮,而是一头睡牛。 

  西方富裕了500年,美国也富裕了一百多年,依然精神抖擞。中国才改革开放30年,刚有一点小钱,就又贪图安逸地眯起了眼睛。 

  前面说GDP”狗的屁“的时候,说了中国的工业结构,这是中国另一个致命的身体上的死穴。二战前,斯大林说:中国没有军事工业,现在只要谁高兴,谁就可以蹂躏它。从晚清到民国,中国一直就像一个富裕、漂亮、柔弱的寡妇一样,谁都可以掠夺她,欺辱她。今天,中国还是没有像样的现代工业,没有在高技术领域占有一席之地。航天工业最突出,也不过相当于美俄50年前的水平。航空工业不说了。几种主战飞机的发动机都是外国的。没有自己的大飞机。航空母舰就更不用说了,到我们造出来的时候,也不过是追上西方100年前的水平。美国的航天母舰现在已经在试飞了。 

  我们现在几乎所有的”核心产业“都是”空心“产业。我们现在的经济结构,这些构成GDP的财富,都没有保卫自己本身的功能,到最后都是人家的。甲午战争中国战败,日本得到了中国价值1亿两白银的战利品和2。3亿两的赔款,这笔巨款相当于日本当时7年的财政收入,外相陆奥宗光高兴地说:”在这笔赔款之前,根本没有料到会有几亿日元,本国全部收入只有8千万日元,一想到现在会有3亿5千万日元滚滚而来,无论政府和私人都觉得无比的富裕!“整个日本内阁无不弹冠相庆。战后,日本经济和军事实力飞速扩张,一发不可收。仅仅10年之后,又在对马海峡赢得对俄罗斯的海战胜利。 

  美国就不一样,它的所有构成GDP的东西,不仅本身就是财富,还能保卫自己的财富,还可以掠夺更多的财富,比如他的太空产业,它的信息产业,它的航空产业,它的造船、它的化工等等。它们的GDP,就像一辆坦克,可以开到世界上,想怎么样就怎么样;我们中国的GDP呢,就像一台拖拉机,只能在自己的田野上收割自己的庄稼。国家的战争,就是GDP的对撞。我们的拖拉机,能撞得过人家的坦克吗?来上海的路上,我一直在看抗日战争史。就在上海这个地方,淞沪抗战,上海人打得很英勇,一点也没有娘娘腔。但是,蒋介石的70万部队,其中还有三个德式准备的师,最后被日本20多万部队打得落花流水。为什么?装备是很大的原因。整个抗日战争,日本投入的军队也就六十多万,中国人死伤了多少?3500万!因为没有钢铁构筑长城,只能以血肉筑成我们的长城。就是这样的伤亡,如果不是美国和苏联的合力,我们什么时候把日本赶出都不知道。日本说要准备和中国打百年战争,我看不是没有可能。当年法国和英国就打了百年战争,因为双方实力相当。中国有人有地盘,日本有工业,有精神。这样的教训还不够吗?为什么我们现在还不吸取教训呢?我都不敢想象,如果中国和日本的人口和国土条件换一换,会是什么结果?为什么我们就不如日本? 

本篇文章来源于 www.xilu.com 原文链接:http://junshi.xilu.com/2012/0706/news_44_261493_5.html

 

别的大国都有历史感,都知道1929年的美国经济危机在十年后引发了第二次世界大战,都在今天拼命发展高科技、制造业和军事装备,为什么我们就没有历史感呢?我真是百思不得其解。 

  我们摸着石头过河,最后摸到了一大堆砖头。全世界把房地产列为支柱产业的就中国一家。我们的顶层设计者也不看看世界历史,哪个大国是靠盖房子发展起来的呢?现在很多地方的财政就靠卖地,要是不让它卖地,马上黔驴技穷,不知道怎么活了。像上海和北京这样,具有雄厚技术和工业实力的城市,也去发展房地产业,真是莫名其妙。我们没有造成一种让高科技产业充满暴利的体制,房地产是支撑不了大国崛起的。大家去圆明园看看就知道了,那是世界最好的房地产。靠掠夺自己的弱势群体,不可能实现国家的复兴。从古至今,大国崛起,都是依靠外部资源,或者靠武力掠夺,或者靠技术合法赚取,以富裕自己的人民,然后富国强兵。美国全世界打来打去,为什么?就是夺资源,供它的人们享用;俄罗斯宣布北极主权,为什么?它已经有那么多资源,还拼命夺。就是为子孙夺。我们没有力量去世界夺,但我们要收回属于我们自己的地方。我们不能让和平的诚意和主张,变成别人束缚我们的绳索。我们要像正常国家一样行事。我一直主张,我们的军队,应该进行远征型改造,要能够保卫我们的资源和远洋利益。 

  我们要敢于迎接合理合法的战争,改善安全态势,刺激经济,振奋国民精神。新中国的稳定局面,和经济发展良好的时期,都是几场自卫反击作战的结果。狼是打走的,不是劝走的。 

  中国需要战略家,更需要坚定、勇敢和充满忧患意识的人民。世界上没有打不败的敌人,中国的面前也没有迈不过去的难关。最大的危险是看不到危险。我们的很多学者和官员,只看到鲜花美酒,GDP,眼睛盯着权位和女人,像一只短视的食草动物。

   别睡了,朋友们!我们不能低级到只贪图安逸和肉体享受。我们不能为了钱失去所有的东西,我们不能穷得只剩下钱!固然,今天的时代我们可以有黄光裕,但绝对不能没有黄继光!我们必须知道,旧中国,在世界目前低了一百多年的头,新中国之所以昂着头,那是因为黄继光走在我们的前头!我们应该拥有高尚的目标和拥有一往无前的勇敢精神,敢于面对一切困难和挑战,敢于打破围堵,迎接胜利,为万世开太平,为子孙创造一个强汉盛唐式的新中国!希望在你们和我们的身上,我们不能属于我们的责任,交给下一代人! 

本篇文章来源于 www.xilu.com 原文链接:http://junshi.xilu.com/2012/0706/news_44_261493_6.html

 


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2012-5-28 8:8 | [转帖]汉语学习


 

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编辑 | 阅读全文(209) | 回复(0),灵山空谷 发表于 2012-5-28 8:6
关键字:奥巴马 拉登 演讲
转 2011年05月03日07:06沪江英语网我要评论(0)
字号:T|T
 

Good evening. Tonight, I can report to the American people and to the world that the United States has conducted an operation that killed Osama bin Laden, the leader of al Qaeda, and a terrorist who’s responsible for the murder of thousands of innocent men, women, and children.

晚上好。今天晚上,我终于能向美国人民和全世界宣布,美国指挥的一项行动已经将基地组织的头目奥萨马·本·拉登击毙,他要为成千上万美国无辜的男人女人和儿童的死亡负责。

It was nearly 10 years ago that a bright September day was darkened by the worst attack on the American people in our history. The images of 9/11 are seared into our national memory -- hijacked planes cutting through a cloudless September sky; the Twin Towers collapsing to the ground; black smoke billowing up from the Pentagon; the wreckage of Flight 93 in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, where the actions of heroic citizens saved even more heartbreak and destruction.

那个阳光明媚的九月被美国有史以来遭受的最惨重的恐怖袭击遮蔽,距今就要十年了。911事件的情景一直留在全国人民的记忆中——被劫持的飞机划过万里无云的九月晴空;双子塔轰然倒塌;五角大楼冒出浓浓黑烟;93航班上英勇的乘客们为了挽救更多无辜生命采取行动让飞机坠毁在宾夕法尼亚。

And yet we know that the worst images are those that were unseen to the world. The empty seat at the dinner table. Children who were forced to grow up without their mother or their father. Parents who would never know the feeling of their child’s embrace. Nearly 3,000 citizens taken from us, leaving a gaping hole in our hearts.

然而,我们知道,最惨痛的景象是那些无法展示在世人面前的。餐桌边空空的座位,孩子们不得不在没有父母的环境下成长。父母们再也感受不到孩子们的拥抱。我们的身边被夺走了将近3000个生命,在我们的心中留下沉痛的悲伤。

On September 11, 2001, in our time of grief, the American people came together. We offered our neighbors a hand, and we offered the wounded our blood. We reaffirmed our ties to each other, and our love of community and country. On that day, no matter where we came from, what God we prayed to, or what race or ethnicity we were, we were united as one American family.

2001年9月11日,在我们悲伤的时刻,美国人民团结在一起了。我们向邻居们伸出援手,我们向伤者捐出献血,我们重新确认了彼此之间的羁绊以及我们对社区和国家的爱。在那一天,不管我们来自何方、信仰什么宗教、属于什么种族,我们都被紧紧联系在了美国这个大家庭里。

We were also united in our resolve to protect our nation and to bring those who committed this vicious attack to justice. We quickly learned that the 9/11 attacks were carried out by al Qaeda -- an organization headed by Osama bin Laden, which had openly _declared war on the United States and was committed to killing innocents in our country and around the globe. And so we went to war against al Qaeda to protect our citizens, our friends, and our allies.

在保护我们的国家,给那些应该对这起恶性攻击负责的人以正义制裁的决心面前,我们也万众一心。很快我们就意识到911恐怖袭击是由基地组织策划的,这个组织的头目就是奥萨马·本·拉登,他曾经公开对美国宣战,在我们的国家和全世界都犯下了杀害无辜生命的罪行。于是,我们对基地组织开战,以保护我们的人民、我们的朋友和我们的盟友们。

Over the last 10 years, thanks to the tireless and heroic work of our military and our counterterrorism professionals, we’ve made great strides in that effort. We’ve disrupted terrorist attacks and strengthened our homeland defense. In Afghanistan, we removed the Taliban government, which had given bin Laden and al Qaeda safe haven and support. And around the globe, we worked with our friends and allies to capture or kill scores of al Qaeda terrorists, including several who were a part of the 9/11 plot.

过去的十年里,在我们的军人和反恐专家们不懈而英勇的努力下,我们取得了巨大的成效。我们粉碎了恐怖袭击、加强了我们的国土安全。在阿富汗,我们击退了为基地组织提供安全避难和支持的塔利班政府。在全球,我们和朋友及盟友一起或抓住或击毙了数十名基地恐怖分子,其中包括一些911事件的始作俑者。

Yet Osama bin Laden avoided capture and escaped across the Afghan border into Pakistan. Meanwhile, al Qaeda continued to operate from along that border and operate through its affiliates across the world.

然而奥萨马·本·拉登逃避了抓捕并在阿富汗和巴基斯坦边境逃窜。同时,基地组织也继续通过这条边境线以及世界的分支组织运行着。

And so shortly after taking office, I directed Leon Panetta, the director of the CIA, to make the killing or capture of bin Laden the top priority of our war against al Qaeda, evenas we continued our broader efforts to disrupt, dismantle, and defeat his network.

所以,在上任之后,我命令中情局局长里昂·帕内塔把击毙或活捉本拉登当作我们和基地作战的头等大事,我们也仍在加强力量来瓦解、拆分和击溃他的联系网。

Then, last August, after years of painstaking work by our intelligence community, I was briefed on a possible lead to bin Laden. It was far from certain, and it took many months to run this thread to ground. I met repeatedly with my national security team as we developed more information about the possibility that we had located bin Laden hiding within a compound deep inside of Pakistan. And finally, last week, I determined that we had enough intelligence to take action, and authorized an operation to get Osama bin Laden and bring him to justice.

然后,去年八月,在情报机构数年的辛勤工作之后,我得到本拉登的一份简报。那时还不能确认,我们花费了几个月的时间来确认这条线索,我和咱们国家安全小组的成员们不断的会面,我们得到了更多可能性的信息,把本拉登的藏身地锁定在了巴基斯坦很隐蔽的一个院子里。终于在上周,我决定我们已经有了足够的情报来采取行动,授权打击奥萨马·本·拉登,让他得到正义的制裁。

Today, at my direction, the United States launched a targeted operation against that compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan. A small team of Americans carried out the operation with extraordinary courage and capability. No Americans were harmed. They took care to avoid civilian casualties. After a firefight, they killed Osama bin Laden and took custody of his body.

今天,在我的指挥下,美国发动了一项对巴基斯坦阿伯塔巴德的针对性打击。一小队美国人在超凡的勇气和能力下执行了这个任务,没有美国人受伤。他们很小心的避免了平民的伤亡。在一次交火后,他们击毙了奥萨马·本·拉登,将他绳之以法。

For over two decades, bin Laden has been al Qaeda’s leader and symbol, and has continued to plot attacks against our country and our friends and allies. The death of bin Laden marks the most significant achievement to date in our nation’s effort to defeat al Qaeda.

在过去的二十年里,本拉登作为基地组织的头目和象征,一直在策划对我们的国家、我们的朋友和盟友们进行袭击。本拉登的死标志着我们国家在和基地组织的战斗中取得了重大的成就。

Yet his death does not mark the end of our effort. There’s no doubt that al Qaeda will continue to pursue attacks against us. We must –- and we will -- remain vigilant at home and abroad.

然而,他的死并不意味着我们战斗的终止。基地组织无疑会继续寻求对我们的攻击。我们必须——也必将——在国内和国外保持高度警惕。

As we do, we must also reaffirm that the United States is not –- and never will be -– at war with Islam. I’ve made clear, just as President Bush did shortly after 9/11, that our war is not against Islam. Bin Laden was not a Muslim leader; he was a mass murderer of Muslims. Indeed, al Qaeda has slaughtered scores of Muslims in many countries, including our own. So his demise should be welcomed by all who believe in peace and human dignity.

同时,我们也必须重申,美国没有也永远不会向伊斯兰世界开展。我要清楚的表明,正如小布什总统在911不久后所说,我们的战争并不针对伊斯兰世界,本拉登也不是一个穆斯林领袖,他是杀害穆斯林教徒的凶手。基地组织在很多国家,包括我们自己的国家内确实屠杀了很多穆斯林教徒。所以,他的死亡应该受到所有相信世界和平维护人的尊严的人们的欢迎。

Over the years, I’ve repeatedly made clear that we would take action within Pakistan if we knew where bin Laden was. That is what we’ve done. But it’s important to note that our counterterrorism cooperation with Pakistan helped lead us to bin Laden and the compound where he was hiding. Indeed, bin Laden had _declared war against Pakistan as well, and ordered attacks against the Pakistani people.

在过去数年,我也一直重申一旦我们确认拉登所在,我们可能在巴基斯坦境内采取行动,我们也是这么做的。但要特别拿出来说的一点是我们的反恐是在巴基斯坦的协作下找到本拉登和他的藏身之所的。本拉登也曾经对巴基斯坦宣战,也曾下命令攻击巴基斯坦人民。

Tonight, I called President Zardari, and my team has also spoken with their Pakistani counterparts. They agree that this is a good and historic day for both of our nations. And going forward, it is essential that Pakistan continue to join us in the fight against al Qaeda and its affiliates.

今晚,我给巴基斯坦总统扎尔达里打了电话,我的小队也和巴基斯坦相关人士通了话。今天对我们两国来说都是具有历史意义的好日子,在这一点上大家都达成了共识。

The American people did not choose this fight. It came to our shores, and started with the senseless slaughter of our citizens. After nearly 10 years of service, struggle, and sacrifice, we know well the costs of war. These efforts weigh on me every time I, as Commander-in-Chief, have to sign a letter to a family that has lost a loved one, or look into the eyes of a service member who’s been gravely wounded.

美国人民没有选择战争,战争来到了我们的海岸,对我们的人民进行无意义的屠杀。经过近十年的服役、战争和牺牲,我们太知道战争的代价了。每当我作为三军统帅,必须要给那些失去了心爱之人以及那些遭受重大创伤的服役人员的家人写信的时候,种种艰难时时刻刻都压在我的心头。

So Americans understand the costs of war. Yet as a country, we will never tolerate our security being threatened, nor stand idly by when our people have been killed. We will be relentless in defense of our citizens and our friends and allies. We will be true to the values that make us who we are. And on nights like this one, we can say to those families who have lost loved ones to al Qaeda’s terror: Justice has been done.

美国人民知道战争的代价。然而作为一个国家,我们永远都不能忍受国家安全受到威胁,或者在人民被杀的时候袖手旁观。我们会一直保护我们的居民、我们的朋友和盟友。我们会真实的面对这些代价。然后像今天这个夜晚,我们终于能对那些被基地组织夺去家人生命的家庭说:正义得到了伸张。

Tonight, we give thanks to the countless intelligence and counterterrorism professionals who’ve worked tirelessly to achieve this outcome. The American people do not see their work, nor know their names. But tonight, they feel the satisfaction of their work and the result of their pursuit of justice.

今晚,我要感谢数不清的情报人员和反恐专家们,正是你们不知疲倦的努力才有了这项成就。美国人民看不到他们的工作,也不知道他们的名字,但是今晚,他们会对自己的工作感到满足,他们对正义的追求得到了收获。

We give thanks for the men who carried out this operation, for they exemplify the professionalism, patriotism, and unparalleled courage of those who serve our country. And they are part of a generation that has borne the heaviest share of the burden since that September day.

我们感谢那些执行这项行动的人,这是他们服务国家的职业化、爱国主义和无可匹敌的勇气的明证。自从九月那天起,他们就成了背负最沉重负担的一代人。

Finally, let me say to the families who lost loved ones on 9/11 that we have never forgotten your loss, nor wavered in our commitment to see that we do whatever it takes to prevent another attack on our shores.

最后,让我对那些在911事件中失去家人的家庭们说,我们永远不会忘记你们的损失,我们会采取任何措施来防止对我们国土的另一次袭击,这个承诺我们也永远不会动摇。

And tonight, let us think back to the sense of unity that prevailed on 9/11. I know that it has, at times, frayed. Yet today’s achievement is a testament to the greatness of our country and the determination of the American people.

今晚,让我们回顾一下911那天我们的团结一心,我知道随着时间的流逝这种感觉已经渐渐淡去,但是今天的成就见证了我们国家的伟大和人民的坚不可摧。

The cause of securing our country is not complete. But tonight, we are once again reminded that America can do whatever we set our mind to. That is the story of our history, whether it’s the pursuit of prosperity for our people, or the struggle for equality for all our citizens; our commitment to stand up for our values abroad, and our sacrifices to make the world a safer place.

我们保护国家的任务还没有完成,但是今晚,我们再次相信,美国人民可以完成任何我们下定决心完成的事情。这就是我们的历史:不管是对人民繁荣的追求、或是对人人平等的奋斗,我们传播我们的价值观的承诺以及我们为维护世界和平所作出的牺牲。

Let us remember that we can do these things not just because of wealth or power, but because of who we are: one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

让我们铭记,我们做这件事并不因为我们的财富或力量,而是因为我们自身:我们是在上帝之下,所有人都拥有自由和正义的不可分割的一个国家。

Thank you. May God bless you. And may God bless the United States of America.

谢谢大家,愿上帝保佑你们,上帝保佑美国。

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2011-2-5 18:41 | [转帖]《离骚》英译

关键字:翻译 离骚

转自:http://www.soudoc.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=8876588

 
杨宪益、戴乃迭版《离骚》英译
(一)
 
帝高阳之苗裔兮,朕皇考曰伯庸。摄提贞于孟陬兮,惟庚寅吾以降。
 
皇览揆余初度兮,肇锡余以嘉名:名余曰正则兮,字余曰灵均。
 
Li Sao
 
Qu Yuan
 
A prince am I of ancestry renowned,
Illustrious name my royal sire hath found.
When Sirius did in spring its light display,
A child was born, and Tiger marked the day.
 
When first upon my face my lord's eye glanced,
For me auspicious names he straight advanced,
Denoting that in me Heaven's marks divine
Should with the virtues of the earth combine.
 
(二)
 
纷吾既有此内美兮,又重之以修能。扈江离与辟芷兮,纫秋兰以为佩。
 
汨余若将不及兮,恐年岁之不吾与。朝搴阰之木兰兮,夕揽洲之宿莽。
 
日月忽其不淹兮,春与秋其代序。惟草木之零落兮,恐美人之迟暮。
 
不抚壮而弃秽兮,何不改乎此度?乘骐骥以驰骋兮,来吾道夫先路!
 
With lavished innate qualities indued,
By art and skill my talents I renewed;
Angelic herbs and sweet selineas too,
And orchids late that by the water grew,
 
I wove for ornament; till creeping time,
Like water flowing, stole away my prime.
Magnolias of the glade I plucked at dawn,
At eve beside the stream took winter-thorn.
 
Without delay the sun and moon sped fast,
In swift succession spring and autumn passed;
The fallen flowers lay scattered on the ground,
The dusk might fall before my dream was found.
 
Had I not loved my prime and spurned the vile,
Why should I not have changed my former style?
My chariot drawn by steeds of race divine
I urged; to guide the king my sole design.
 
(三)
 
昔三后之纯粹兮,固众芳之所在。杂申椒与菌桂兮,岂维纫夫蕙茝!
 
彼尧舜之耿介兮,既遵道而得路。何桀纣之猖披兮,夫唯捷径以窘步。
 
惟夫党人之偷乐兮,路幽昧以险隘。岂余身之惮殃兮,恐皇舆之败绩!
 
忽奔走以先后兮,及前王之踵武。荃不察余之中情兮,反信谗以齌怒。
 
余固知謇謇之为患兮,忍而不能舍也。指九天以为正兮,夫唯灵修之故也。
 
(曰黄昏以为期兮,羌中道而改路。)
 
初既与余成言兮,后悔遁而有他。余既不难夫离别兮,伤灵修之数化。
 
Three ancient kings there were so pure and true
That round them every fragrant flower grew;
Cassia and pepper of the mountain-side
With melilotus white in clusters vied.
 
Two monarchs then, who high renown received,
Followed the kingly way, their goal achieved.
Two princes proud by lust their reign abused,
Sought easier path, and their own steps confused.
 
The faction for illict pleasure longed;
Dreadful their way where hidden perils thronged.
Danger against myself could not appal,
But feared I lest my sovereign's scepter fall.
 
Forward and back I hastened in my quest,
Followed the former kings, and took no rest.
The prince my true integrity defamed,
Gave ear to slander, high his anger flamed;
 
Integrity I knew could not avail,
Yet still endured; my lord I would not fail.
Celestial spheres my witness be on high,
I strove but for His Sacred Majesty.
 
'Twas first to me he gave his plighted word,
But soon repenting other counsel heard.
For me departure could arouse no pain;
I grieved to see his royal purpose vain.
 
(四)
 
余既滋兰之九畹兮,又树蕙之百亩。畦留夷与揭车兮,杂杜衡与芳芷。
 
冀枝叶之峻茂兮,原俟时乎吾将刈。虽萎绝其亦何伤兮,哀众芳之芜秽。
 
众皆竞进以贪婪兮,凭不厌乎求索。羌内恕己以量人兮,各兴心而嫉妒。
 
忽驰骛以追逐兮,非余心之所急。老冉冉其将至兮,恐修名之不立。
 
朝饮木兰之坠露兮,夕餐秋菊之落英。苟余情其信姱以练要兮,长顑颔亦何伤。
 
揽木根以结芷兮,贯薜荔之落蕊。矫菌桂以纫蕙兮,索胡绳之纚纚。
 
謇吾法夫前修兮,非世俗之所服。虽不周于今之人兮,原依彭咸之遗则。
 
Nine fields of orchids at one time I grew,
For melilot a hundred acres too,
And fifty acres for the azalea bright,
The rumex fragrant and the lichen white.
 
I longed to see them yielding blossoms rare,
And thought in season due the spoil to share.
I did not grieve to see them die away,
But grieved because midst weeds they did decay.
 
Insatiable in lust and greediness,
The faction strove, and tired not of excess;
Themselves condoning, others they’d decry,
And steep their hearts in envious jealousy.
 
Insatiably they seized what they desired,
It was not that to which my heart aspired.
As old age unrelenting hurried near,
Lest my fair name should fail was all my fear.
 
Dew from magnolia leaves I drank at dawn,
At eve for food were aster petals borne;
And loving thus the simple and the fair,
How should I for my sallow features care?
 
With gathered vines I strung valeria white,
And mixed with blue wistaria petals bright,
And melilotus matched with cassia sweet,
With ivy green and tendrils long to meet.
 
Life I adapted to the ancient way,
Leaving the manners of the present day;
Thus unconforming to the modern age,
The path I followed of a bygone sage.
 
(五)
 
长太息以掩涕兮,哀民生之多艰。余虽好修姱以鞿羁兮,謇朝谇而夕替。
 
既替余以蕙纕兮,又申之以揽茝。亦余心之所善兮,虽九死其犹未悔。
 
怨灵修之浩荡兮,终不察夫民心。众女嫉余之蛾眉兮,谣诼谓余以善淫。
 
固时俗之工巧兮,偭规矩而改错。背绳墨以追曲兮,竞周容以为度。
 
忳郁邑余佗傺兮,吾独穷困乎此时也!宁溘死以流亡兮,余不忍为此态也!
 
鸷鸟之不群兮,自前世而固然。何方圜之能周兮,夫孰异道而相安?
 
屈心而抑志兮,忍尤而攘垢。伏清白以死直兮,固前圣之所厚。
 
Long did I sigh and wipe away my tears,
To see my people bowed by griefs and fears.
Though I my gifts enhanced and curbed my pride,
At morn they'd mock me, would at eve deride;
 
First cursed that I angelica should wear,
Then cursed me for my melilotus fair.
But since my heart did love such purity,
I'd not regret a thousand deaths to die.
 
I marvel at the folly of the king,
So heedless of his people's suffering.
They envied me my mothlike eyebrows fine,
And so my name his damsels did malign.
 
Truly to craft alone their praise they paid,
The square in measuring they disobeyed;
The use of common rules they held debased;
With confidence their crooked lines they traced.
 
In sadness plunged and sunk in deepest gloom,
Alone I drove on to my dreary doom.
In exile rather would I meet my end,
Than to the baseness of their ways descend.
 
Remote the eagle spurns the common range,
Nor deigns since time began its way to change;
A circle fits not with a square design;
Their different ways could not be merged with mine.
 
Yet still my heart I checked and curbed my pride,
Their blame endured and their reproach beside.
To die for righteousness alone I sought,
For this was what the ancient sages taught.
 
(六)
 
悔相道之不察兮,延伫乎吾将反。回朕车以复路兮,及行迷之未远。
 
步余马于兰皋兮,驰椒丘且焉止息。进不入以离尤兮,退将复修吾初服。
 
制芰荷以为衣兮,集芙蓉以为裳。不吾知其亦已兮,苟余情其信芳。
 
高余冠之岌岌兮,长余佩之陆离。芳与泽其杂糅兮,唯昭质其犹未亏。
 
忽反顾以游目兮,将往观乎四荒。佩缤纷其繁饰兮,芳菲菲其弥章。
 
民生各有所乐兮,余独好修以为常。虽体解吾犹未变兮,岂余心之可惩。
 
I failed my former errors to discern;
I tarried long, but now I would return.
My steeds I wheeled back to their former way,
Lest all too long down the wrong path I stray.
 
On orchid-covered bank I loosed my steed,
And let him gallop by the flow'ry mead
At will. Rejected now and in disgrace,
I would retire to cultivate my grace.
 
With cress leaves green my simple gown I made,
With lilies white my rustic garb did braid.
Why should I grieve to go unrecognized,
Since in my heart fragrance was truly prized?
 
My headdress then high-pinnacled I raised,
Lengthened my pendents, where bright jewels blazed.
Others may smirch their fragrance and bright hues,
My innocence is proof against abuse.
 
Oft I looked back, gazed to the distance still,
Longed in the wilderness to roam at will.
Splendid my ornaments together vied,
With all the fragrance of the flowers beside;
 
All men had pleasures in their various ways,
My pleasure was to cultivate my grace.
I would not change, though they my body rend;
How could my heart be wrested from its end?
 
(七)
 
女嬃之婵媛兮,申申其詈予,曰:“鲧婞直以亡身兮,终然夭乎羽之野。
 
汝何博謇而好修兮,纷独有此姱节?薋菉葹以盈室兮,判独离而不服。
 
众不可户说兮,孰云察余之中情?世并举而好朋兮,夫何茕独而不予听?”
 
My handmaid fair, with countenance demure,
Entreated me allegiance to abjure:
"A hero perished in the plain ill-starred,
Where pigmies stayed their plumage to discard.
 
Why lovest thou thy grace and purity,
Alone dost hold thy splendid virtue high?
Lentils and weeds the prince's chamber fill:
Why holdest thou aloof with stubborn will?
 
Thou canst not one by one the crowd persuade,
And who the purpose of our heart hath weighed?
Faction and strife the world hath ever loved;
Heeding me not, why standest thou removed?"
 
(八)
 
依前圣以节中兮,喟凭心而历兹。济沅、湘以南征兮,就重华而陈词:
 
“启《九辨》与《九歌》兮,夏康娱以自纵。不顾难以图后兮,五子用失乎家巷。
 
羿淫游以佚畋兮,又好射夫封狐。固乱流其鲜终兮,浞又贪夫厥家。
 
浇身被服强圉兮,纵欲而不忍。日康娱而自忘兮,厥首用夫颠陨。
 
夏桀之常违兮,乃遂焉而逢殃。后辛之菹醢兮,殷宗用而不长。
 
汤禹俨而祗敬兮,周论道而莫差。举贤才而授能兮,循绳墨而不颇。
 
皇天无私阿兮,览民德焉错辅。夫维圣哲以茂行兮,苟得用此下土。
 
瞻前而顾后兮,相观民之计极。夫孰非义而可用兮,孰非善而可服?
 
阽余身而危死兮,览余初其犹未悔。不量凿而正枘兮,固前修以菹醢。”
 
曾歔欷余郁邑兮,哀朕时之不当。揽茹蕙以掩涕兮,霑余襟之浪浪。
 
I sought th' ancestral voice to ease my woe.
Alas, how one so proud could sink so low!
To barbarous south I went across the stream;
Before the ancient I began my theme:
 
"With odes divine there came a monarch's son,
Whose revels unrestrained were never done;
In antics wild, to coming perils blind,
He fought his brother, and his sway declined.
 
The royal archer, in his wanton chase
For foxes huge, his kingdom did disgrace.
Such wantonness predicts no happy end;
His queen was stolen by his loyal friend.
 
The traitor's son, clad in prodigious might,
In incest sinned and cared not what was right.
He reveled all his days, forgetting all;
His head at last in treachery did fall.
 
And then the prince, who counsels disobeyed,
Did court disaster, and his kingdom fade.
A prince his sage in burning cauldrons tossed;
His glorious dynasty ere long was lost.
 
But stern and pious was their ancient sire,
And his successor too did faith inspire;
Exalted were the wise, the able used,
The rule was kept and never was abused.
 
The august heaven, with unbiased grace,
All men discerns, and helps the virtuous race;
Sagacious princes through their virtuous deed
The earth inherit, and their reigns succeed.
 
The past I probed, the future so to scan,
And found these rules that guide the life of man:
A man unjust in deed who would engage?
Whom should men take as guide except the sage?
 
In mortal dangers death I have defied,
Yet could look back, and cast regret aside.
Who strove, their tool's defects accounting nought,
Like ancient sages were to cauldrons brought"
 
Thus I despaired, my face with sad tears marred,
Mourning with bitterness my years ill-starred;
And melilotus leaves I took to stem
The tears that streamed down to my garment's hem.
 
(九)
 
跪敷衽以陈辞兮,耿吾既得此中正。驷玉虬以乘鹥兮,溘埃风余上征。
 
朝发轫于苍梧兮,夕余至乎县圃。欲少留此灵琐兮,日忽忽其将暮。
 
吾令羲和弭节兮,望崦嵫而勿迫。路曼曼其修远兮,吾将上下而求索。
 
饮余马於咸池兮,总余辔乎扶桑。折若木以拂日兮,聊逍遥以相羊。
 
前望舒使先驱兮,后飞廉使奔属。鸾皇为余先戒兮,雷师告余以未具。
 
吾令凤鸟飞腾兮,继之以日夜。飘风屯其相离兮,帅云霓而来御。
 
纷总总其离合兮,斑陆离其上下。吾令帝阍开关兮,倚阊阖而望予。
 
时暧暧其将罢兮,结幽兰而延儜。世溷浊而不分兮,好蔽美而嫉妒。
 
Soiling my gown, to plead my case I kneeled;
Th'ancestral voice the path to me revealed.
Swift jade-green dragons, birds with plumage gold,
I harnessed to the whirlwind, and behold,
 
At daybreak from the land of plane-trees grey,
I came to paradise ere close of day.
I wished within the sacred grove to stay,
The sun had sunk, and darkness wrapped the way;
 
The driver of the sun I bade to stay,
Ere with the setting rays we haste away.
The way was long, and wrapped in gloom did seem,
As I urged on to seek my vanished dream.
 
The dragons quenched their thirst beside the lake
Where bathed the sun, whilst I upon the brake
Fastened my reins; a golden bough I sought
To brush the sun, and tarred there in sport.
 
The pale moon's charioteer I then bade lead,
The master of the winds swiftly succeed;
Before, the royal blue bird cleared the way;
The lord of thunder urged me to delay.
 
I bade the phoenix scan the heaven wide;
But vainly day and night its course it tried;
The gathering whirlwinds drove it from my sight,
Rushing with lowering clouds to check my flight;
 
Sifting and merging in the firmament,
Above, below, in various hues they went.
The gate-keeper of heaven I bade give place,
But leaning on his door he scanned my face;
 
The day grew dark, and now was nearly spent;
Idly my orchids into wreaths I bent.
The virtuous and the vile in darkness merged;
They veiled my virtue, by their envy urged.
 
(十)
 
朝吾将济于白水兮,登阆风而緤马。忽反顾以流涕兮,哀高丘之无女。
 
溘吾游此春宫兮,折琼枝以继佩。及荣华之未落兮,相下女之可诒。
 
吾令丰隆乘云兮,求宓妃之所在。解佩纕以结言兮,吾令謇修以为理。
 
纷总总其离合兮,忽纬繣其难迁。夕归次於穷石兮,朝濯发乎洧盘。
 
保厥美以骄傲兮,日康娱以淫游。虽信美而无礼兮,来违弃而改求。
 
览相观于四极兮,周流乎天余乃下。望瑶台之偃蹇兮,见有娀之佚女。
 
吾令鸩为媒兮,鸩告余以不好。雄鸠之鸣逝兮,余犹恶其佻巧。
 
心犹豫而狐疑兮,欲自适而不可。凤皇既受诒兮,恐高辛之先我。
 
欲远集而无所止兮,聊浮游以逍遥。及少康之未家兮,留有虞之二姚。
 
理弱而媒拙兮,恐导言之不固。世溷浊而嫉贤兮,好蔽美而称恶。
 
闺中既以邃远兮,哲王又不寤。怀朕情而不发兮,余焉能忍而与此终古!
 
At dawn the waters white I left behind;
My steed stayed by the portals of the wind;
Yet, gazing back, a bitter grief I felt
That in the lofty crag no damsel dwelt.
 
I wandered eastward to the palace green,
And pendents sought where jasper boughs were seen,
And vowed that they, before their splendor fade,
As gift should go to grace the loveliest maid.
 
The lord of clouds I then bade mount the sky
To seek the steam where once the nymph did lie;
As pledge I gave my belt of splendid sheen,
My councilor appointed go-between.
 
Fleeting and wilful like capricious cloud,
Her obstinacy swift no change allowed.
At dusk retired she to the crag withdrawn,
Her hair beside the stream she washed at dawn.
 
Exulting in her beauty and her pride,
Pleasure she worshipped, and no whim denied;
So fair of form, so careless of all grace,
I turned to take another in her place.
 
To earth's extremities I sought my bride,
And urged my train through all the heaven wide.
Upon a lofty crag of jasper green
The beauteous princess of the west was seen.
 
The falcon then I bade entreat the maid,
But he, demurring, would my course dissuade;
The turtle-dove cooed soft and off did fly,
But I mistrusted his frivolity.
 
Like whelp in doubt, like timid fox in fear,
I wished to go, but wandered ever near.
With nuptial gifts the phoenix swiftly went;
I feared the prince had won her ere I sent.
 
I longed to travel far, yet with no bourn,
I could but wander aimless and forlorn.
Before the young king was in marriage bound,
The royal sisters twain might still be found;
 
My plea was weak, my mission was but frail;
I knew that my demand could not avail.
The world is dark, and envious of my grace;
They veil my virtue and the evil praise.
 
Thy chamber dark lies in recesses deep,
Sagacious prince, risest thou not from sleep?
My zeal unknown the prince would not descry;
How could I bear this harsh eternity?
 
(十一)
 
索琼茅以筳篿兮,命灵氛为余占之。曰:“两美其必合兮,孰信修而慕之?
 
思九州之博大兮,岂惟是其有女?”曰:“勉远逝而无狐疑兮,孰求美而释女?
 
何所独无芳草兮,尔何怀乎故宇?世幽昧以昡曜兮,孰云察余之善恶?
 
民好恶其不同兮,惟此党人其独异。户服艾以盈要兮,谓幽兰其不可佩。
 
览察草木其犹未得兮,岂珵美之能当?苏粪壤以充帏兮,谓申椒其不芳。
 
With mistletoe and herbs of magic worth,
I urged the witch the future to show forth.
"If two attain perfection they must meet,
But who is there that would thy virtue greet?
 
Far the nine continents their realm display;
Why here to seek thy bride doth thou delay?
Away!" she cried. "Set craven doubt aside,
If beauty' s sought, there' s none hath with thee vied.
 
What place is there where orchids flower not fair?
Why is thy native land thy single care?
"Now darkly lies the world in twilight' s glow,
Who doth your defects and your virtue know?
 
Evil and good herein are reconciled;
The crowd alone hath nought but is defiled.
With stinking mugwort girt upon their waist,
They curse the others for their orchids chaste;
 
Ignorant thus in choice of fragrance rare,
Rich ornaments how could they fitly wear?
With mud and filth they fill their pendent bag;
Cursing the pepper sweet, they brawl and brag."
 
(十二)
 
欲从灵氛之吉占兮,心犹豫而狐疑。巫咸将夕降兮,怀椒糈而要之。
 
百神翳其备降兮,九疑缤其并迎。皇剡剡其扬灵兮,告余以吉故。
 
曰:“勉升降以上下兮,求矩矱之所同。汤、禹俨而求合兮,挚、咎繇而能调。
 
苟中情其好修兮,又何必用夫行媒?说操筑於傅岩兮,武丁用而不疑。
 
吕望之鼓刀兮,遭周文而得举。宁戚之讴歌兮,齐桓闻以该辅。
 
及年岁之未晏兮,时亦犹其未央。恐鹈鴂之先鸣兮,使夫百草为之不芳。”
 
Although the witches counsel I held good,
In foxlike indecision still I stood.
At night the wizard great made his descent,
And meeting him spiced rice I did present.
 
The angels came, shading with wings the sky;
From mountains wild the deities drew nigh.
With regal splendor shone the solemn sight,
And thus the wizard spake with omens bright:
 
"Take office high or low as days afford,
If one there be that could with thee accord;
Like ancient kings austere who sought their mate,
Finding the one who should fulfill their fate.
 
Now if thy heart doth cherish grace within,
What need is there to choose a go-between?
A convict toiled on rocks to expiate
His crime; his sovereign gave him great estate.
 
A butcher with his knife made roundelay;
His king chanced there and happy proved the day.
A prince who heard a cowherd chanting late
Raised him to be a councilor of state.
 
Before old age o' ertake thee on thy way,
Life still is young; to profit turn thy day.
Spring is but brief, when cuckoos start to sing,
And flowers will fade that once did spread and spring."
 
(十三)
 
何琼佩之偃蹇兮,众薆然而蔽之?惟此党人之不谅兮,恐嫉妒而折之。
 
时缤纷其变易兮,又何可以淹留!兰芷变而不芳兮,荃蕙化而为茅。
 
何昔日之芳草兮,今直为此萧艾也?岂其有他故兮,莫好修之害也。
 
余以兰为可恃兮,羌无实而容长。委厥美以从俗兮,苟得列乎众芳!
 
椒专佞以慢慆兮,榝又欲充夫佩帏。既干进而务入兮,又何芳之能祗?
 
固时俗之流从兮,又孰能无变化?览椒兰其若兹兮,又况揭车与江离!
 
惟兹佩之可贵兮,委厥美而历兹。芳菲菲而难亏兮,芬至今犹未沬。
 
和调度以自娱兮,聊浮游而求女。及余饰之方壮兮,周流观乎上下。
 
On high my jasper pendent proudly gleamed,
Hid by the crowd with leaves that thickly teemed;
Untiring they relentless means employed;
I feared it would through envy be destroyed.
 
This gaudy age so fickle proved its will,
That to what purpose did I linger still?
E'en orchids changed, their fragrance quickly lost,
And midst the weeds angelicas were tossed.
 
How could these herbs, so fair in former day,
Their hue have changed, and turned to mugworts grey?
The reason for their fall, not far to seek,
Was that to tend their grace their will proved weak.
 
I thought upon the orchids I might lean;
No flowers appeared, but long bare leaves were seen;
Their grace abandoned, vulgar taste to please,
Content with lesser flowers to dwell at ease.
 
To boasts and flattery the pepper turned;
To fill the pendent bag the dogwood yearned;
Thus only upon higher stations bent,
How could they long retain their former scent?
 
Since they pursued the fashion of the time,
Small wonder they decayed e' en in their prime.
Viewing the orchids' and the peppers' plight
Why blame the rumex and selinea white?
 
My jasper pendent rare I was beguiled
To leave, and to this depth then sank defiled.
It blossomed still and never ceased to grow;
Like water did its lovely fragrance flow:
 
Pleasure I took to wear this bough in sport,
As roaming wild the damsel fair I sought.
Thus in my prime, with ornaments bedecked,
I roved the earth and heaven to inspect.
 
(十四)
 
灵氛既告余以吉占兮,历吉日乎吾将行。折琼枝以为羞兮,精琼爢以为粻。
 
为余驾飞龙兮,杂瑶象以为车。何离心之可同兮?吾将远逝以自疏。
 
邅吾道夫昆仑兮,路修远以周流。扬云霓之晻蔼兮,鸣玉鸾之啾啾。
 
朝发轫於天津兮,夕余至乎西极。凤皇翼其承旗兮,高翱翔之翼翼。
 
忽吾行此流沙兮,遵赤水而容与。麾蛟龙使梁津兮,诏西皇使涉予。
 
路修远以多艰兮,腾众车使径待。路不周以左转兮,指西海以为期。
 
屯余车其千乘兮,齐玉轪而并驰。驾八龙之婉婉兮,载云旗之委蛇。
 
抑志而弭节兮,神高驰之邈邈。奏歌而舞韶兮,聊假日以愉乐。
 
陟升皇之赫戏兮,忽临睨夫旧乡。仆夫悲余马怀兮,蜷局顾而不行。
 
With omens bright the seer revealed the way,
I then appointed an auspicious day.
As victuals rare some jasper twigs I bore,
And some prepared, provision rich to store;
 
Then winged horses to my chariot brought
My carriage bright with jade and ivory wrought.
How might tow hearts at variance accord?
I roamed till peace be to my mind restored.
 
The pillar of the earth I stayed beside;
The way was long, and winding far and wide.
In twilight glowed the clouds with wondrous sheen,
And chirping flew the birds of jasper green.
 
I went at dawn high heaven' s ford to leave;
To earth' s extremity I came at eve.
On phoenix wings the dragon pennons lay;
With plumage bright they flew to lead the way.
 
I crossed the quicksand with its treach' rous flood,
Beside the burning river, red as blood;
To bridge the stream my dragons huge I bade,
Invoked the emperor of the west to aid.
 
The way was long, precipitous in view;
I bade my train a different path pursue.
There where the heaven fell we turned a space,
And marked the western sea as meeting-place.
 
A thousand chariots gathered in my train,
With axles full abreast we drove amain;
Eight horses drew the carriages behind;
The pennons shook like serpents in the wind.
 
I lowered flags, and from my whip refrained;
My train of towering chariots I restrained.
I sang the odes. I trod a sacred dance,
In revels wild my last hour to enhance.
 
Ascending where celestial heaven blazed,
On native earth for the last time we gazed;
My slaves were sad, my steeds all neighed in grief,
And, gazing back, the earth they would not leave.
 
(十五)
 
乱曰:
 
已矣哉!
 
国无人莫我知兮,
 
又何怀乎故都!
 
既莫足与为美政兮,
 
吾将从彭咸之所居!
 
Epilogue,
 
Since in that kingdom all my virtue spurn,
Why should I for the royal city yearn?
Wide though the world, no wisdom can be found.
I'll seek the stream where once the sage was drowned.
 
 
编辑 | 阅读全文(2020) | 回复(0),灵山空谷 发表于 2011-2-5 18:41
关键字:柏拉图 修辞学
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