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 Plato:Rhetoric is "the art of winning the soul by discourse."

Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion."

Cicero:"Rhetoric is one great art comprised of five lesser arts: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronunciatio."Rhetoric is "speech designed to persuade."

Quintillian:"Rhetoric is the art of speaking well."

Francis Bacon: The duty and office of rhetoric is to apply reason to imagination for the better moving of the will.

George Campbell:[Rhetoric] is that art or talent by which discourse is adapted to its end.The four ends of discourse are to enlighten the understanding, please the imagination, move the passion, and influence the will.

I. A. Richards:Rhetoric is the study of misunderstandings and their remedies.

Richard Weaver:Rhetoric is that "which creates an informed appetition for the good."

Erika Lindemann:"Rhetoric is a form of reasoning about probabilities, based on assumptions people share as members of a community."Philip Johnson: "Rhetoric is the art of framing an argument so that it can be appreciated by an audience."Andrea Lunsford:"Rhetoric is the art, practice, and study of human communication."

Kenneth Burke: The most characteristic concern of rhetoric [is] the manipulation of men's beliefs for political ends....the basic function of rhetoric [is] the use of words by human agents to form attitudes or to induce actions in other human agents.George Kennedy: Rhetoric in the most general sense may perhaps be identified with the energy inherent in communication:the emotional energy that impels the speaker to speak, the physical energy expanded in the utterance, the energy level coded in the message, and the energy experienced by the recipient in decoding the message. 

Lloyd Bitzer: ...rhetoric is a mode of altering reality, not by the direct application of energy to objects, but by the creation of discourse which changes reality through the mediation of thought and action.

Douglas Ehninger: [Rhetoric is] that discipline which studies all of the ways in which men may influence each other's thinking and behavior through the strategic use of symbols.

Gerard A. Hauser: Rhetoric is an instrumental use of language. One person engages another person in an exchange of symbols to accomplish some goal. It is not communication for communication's sake. Rhetoric is communication that attempts to coordinate social action. For this reason, rhetorical communication is explicitly pragmatic. Its goal is to influence human choices on specific matters that require immediate attention.C. H. Knoblauch: ...rhetoric is the process of using language to organize experience and communicate it to others. It is also the study of how people use language to organize and communicate experience. The word denotes both distinctive human activity and the "science" concerned with understanding that activity.John Locke: [Rhetoric,] that powerful instrument of error and deceit. 

Charles Bazerman: The study of how people use language and other symbols to realize human goals and carry out human activities . . . ultimately a practical study offering people great control over their symbolic activity. Michael Hyde and Craig Smith: The primordial function of rhetoric is to "make-known" meaning both to oneself and to others. Meaning is derived by a human being in and through the interpretive understanding of reality. Rhetoric is the process of making known that meaning. Is not rhetoric defined as pragmatic communication, more concerned with the contemporary audiences and specific questions than with universal audiences and general questions?Alfred North Whitehead: The creation of the world -- said Plato -- is the victory of persuasion over force. The worth of men consists in their liability to persuasion.Samuel M. Edelman: "Rhetoric can be defined as the art or method of reconciling...individual and systemic goals and constraints." (JCR Sept 2003)

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关键字:rhetoric
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英语最常用修辞格Figures of speech


Figures of speech (修辞)are ways of making our language figurative. When we use words in other than their ordinary or literal sense to lend force to an idea, to heighten effect, or to create suggestive imagery, we are said to be speaking or writing figuratively. Now we are going to talk about some common forms of figures of speech.


1) Simile:(明喻)It is a figure of speech which makes a comparison between two unlike elements having at least one quality or characteristic (特性)in common. To make the comparison, words like as, as...as, as if and like are used to transfer the quality we associate with one to the other. For example, As cold waters to a thirsty soul, so is good news from a far country.

2) Metaphor:(暗喻)It is like a simile, also makes a comparison between two unlike elements, but unlike a simile, this comparison is implied rather than stated. For example, the world is a stage.

3) Analogy: (类比)It is also a form of comparison, but unlike simile or metaphor which usually uses comparison on one point of resemblance, analogy draws a parallel between two unlike things that have several common qualities or points of resemblance.

4) Personification: (拟人)It gives human form of feelings to animals, or life and personal attributes(赋予) to inanimate(无生命的) objects, or to ideas and abstractions(抽象). For example, the wind whistled through the trees.

5) Hyperbole: (夸张) It is the deliberate use of overstatement or exaggeration to achieve emphasis. For instance, he almost died laughing.

6) Understatement: (含蓄陈述) It is the opposite of hyperbole, or overstatement. It achieves its effect of emphasizing a fact by deliberately(故意地) understating it, impressing the listener or the reader more by what is merely implied or left unsaid than by bare statement. For instance, It is no laughing matter.

7) Euphemism: (委婉) It is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive(无冒犯) expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant. For instance, we refer to "die" as " pass away".

8) Metonymy (转喻) It is a figure of speech that has to do with the substitution of the mane of one thing for that of another. For instance, the pen (words) is mightier than the sword (forces).

9) Synecdoche (提喻) It is involves the substitution of the part for the whole, or the whole for the part. For instance, they say there's bread and work for all. She was dressed in silks.

10) Antonomasia (换喻)It has also to do with substitution. It is not often mentioned now, though it is still in frequent use. For example, Solomon for a wise man. Daniel for a wise and fair judge. Judas for a traitor.

11) Pun: (双关语) It is a play on words, or rather a play on the form and meaning of words. For instance, a cannon-ball took off his legs, so he laid down his arms. (Here "arms" has two meanings: a person's body; weapons carried by a soldier.)

12) Syllepsis: (一语双叙) It has two connotations.
    In the first case, it is a figure by which a word, or a particular form or inflection of a word, refers to two or more words in the same sentence, while properly applying to or agreeing with only on of them in grammar or syntax(句法). For example, He addressed you and me, and desired us to follow him. (Here us is used to refer to you and me.)
    In the second case, it a word may refer to two or more words in the same sentence. For example, while he was fighting , and losing limb and mind, and dying, others stayed behind to pursue education and career. (Here to losing one's limbs in literal; to lose one's mind is figurative, and means to go mad.)

13) Zeugma: (轭式搭配) It is a single word which is made to modify or to govern two or more words in the same sentence, wither properly applying in sense to only one of them, or applying to them in different senses. For example, The sun shall not burn you by day, nor the moon by night. (Here noon is not strong enough to burn)

14) Irony: (反语) It is a figure of speech that achieves emphasis by saying the opposite of what is meant, the intended meaning of the words being the opposite of their usual sense. For instance, we are lucky, what you said makes me feel real good.

15) Innuendo: (暗讽) It is a mild form of irony, hinting in a rather roundabout (曲折)way at something disparaging(不一致) or uncomplimentary(不赞美) to the person or subject mentioned. For example, the weatherman said it would be worm. He must take his readings in a bathroom.

16) Sarcasm: (讽刺) It Sarcasm is a strong form of irony. It attacks in a taunting and bitter manner, and its aim is to disparage, ridicule and wound the feelings of the subject attacked. For example, laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps break through.

17) Paradox: (似非而是的隽语) It is a figure of speech consisting of a statement or proposition which on the face of it seems self-contradictory, absurd or contrary to established fact or practice, but which on further thinking and study may prove to be true, well-founded, and even to contain a succinct point. For example more haste, less speed.

18) Oxymoron: (矛盾修饰) It is a compressed paradox, formed by the conjoining(结合) of two contrasting, contradictory or incongruous(不协调) terms as in bitter-sweet memories, orderly chaos(混乱) and proud humility(侮辱).

19) Antithesis: (对照) It is the deliberate arrangement of contrasting words or ideas in balanced structural forms to achieve emphasis. For example, speech is silver; silence is golden.

20) Epigram: (警句) It states a simple truth pithily(有利地) and pungently(强烈地). It is usually terse and arouses interest and surprise by its deep insight into certain aspects of human behavior or feeling. For instance, Few, save the poor, feel for the poor.

21) Climax: (渐进) It is derived from the Greek word for "ladder" and implies the progression of thought at a uniform or almost uniform rate of significance or intensity, like the steps of a ladder ascending evenly. For example, I came, I saw, I conquered.

22) Anti-climax or bathos: (突降)It is the opposite of Climax. It involves stating one's thoughts in a descending order of significance or intensity, from strong to weak, from weighty to light or frivolous. For instance, But thousands die, without or this or that, die, and endow(赋予) a college, or a cat.

23) Apostrophe: (顿呼) In this figure of speech, a thing, place, idea or person (dead or absent) is addressed as if present, listening and understanding what is being said. For instance, England! awake! awake! awake!

24) Transferred Epithet: (转类形容词) It is a figure of speech where an epithet (an adjective or descriptive phrase) is transferred from the noun it should rightly modify(修饰) to another to which it does not really apply or belong. For instance, I spent sleepless nights on my project.

25) Alliteration: (头韵) It has to do with the sound rather than the sense of words for effect. It is a device that repeats the same sound at frequent intervals(间隔) and since the sound repeated is usually the initial consonant sound, it is also called "front rhyme". For instance, the fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, the furrow followed free.

26) Onomatopoeia: (拟声) It is a device that uses words which imitate the sounds made by an object (animate or inanimate), or which are associated with or suggestive(提示的) of some action or movement.
   Selected from Figures of Speech by Feng Cuihua

 

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2008-10-13 18:13 | [转帖]Aristotle's Rhetoric

Aristotle's Rhetoric

A hypertextual resource compiled by Lee Honeycutt

 

Book OneBook TwoBook Three
http://www.public.iastate.edu/~honeyl/Rhetoric/index.html
仅供教学使用,请勿用作其他用途。
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2008-10-13 16:57 | [转帖]Isocrates' Antidosis

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关键字:诡辩派
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关键字:语言 迷障
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2008-10-1 11:50 | [转帖]转:A forever friend

关键字:friend
A Forever Friend 永远的朋友 [有声]
 

"A friend walk in when the rest of the world walks out."
"别人都走开的时候,朋友仍与你在一起。”

Sometimes in life,
有时候在生活中,

You find a special friend;
你会找到一个特别的朋友;

Someone who changes your life just by being part of it.
他只是你生活中的一部分内容,却能改变你整个的生活。

Someone who makes you laugh until you can't stop;
他会把你逗得开怀大笑;

Someone who makes you believe that there really is good in the world.
他会让你相信人间有真情。

Someone who convinces you that there really is an unlocked door just waiting for you to open it.
他会让你确信,真的有一扇不加锁的门,在等待着你去开启。

This is Forever Friendship.
这就是永远的友谊。

when you're down,
当你失意,

and the world seems dark and empty,
当世界变得黯淡与空虚,

Your forever friend lifts you up in spirits and makes that dark and empty world
suddenly seem bright and full.
你真正的朋友会让你振作起来,原本黯淡、空虚的世界顿时变得明亮和充实。

Your forever friend gets you through the hard times,the sad times,and the confused times.
你真正的朋友会与你一同度过困难、伤心和烦恼的时刻。

If you turn and walk away,
你转身走开时,

Your forever friend follows,
真正的朋友会紧紧相随,

If you lose you way,
你迷失方向时,

Your forever friend guides you and cheers you on.
真正的朋友会引导你,鼓励你。

Your forever friend holds your hand and tells you that everything is going to be okay.
真正的朋友会握着你的手,告诉你一切都会好起来的。


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