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 美国的州名来源
美国州名的来源(1)潘恰 地名志或地名研究(Toponymy)属于历史语言学范畴。历史语言学家对地名的来源作了相当的研究。美国内务部曾汇集了一批能干的语言学家,成立了专门机构,其任务是对美国的地名来源进行研究,给以准确的解释。 
    
在美国的地名中,一半以上始源于印第安语。其余的始源于欧洲,如纪念皇帝皇后,或某一特殊地区,还有是为纪念历史重要人物及记载历史活动的。 
    由于语言和文化是休戚相关的,人们通过研究地名的始源,可以了解关于这个国家的背景。历史活动,甚至价值观。 
    笔者从不同的资料汇集了美国洲名的来源,供学习研究英语、美国历史与文化的人们参考。 
ALABAMA(阿拉巴马):来源于巧克陶印第安语,意思是 "thicket-clearers" 或者 "vegetation-gatherers""拓荒者"或者"打草人" 
AlASKA(阿拉斯加):来源于阿留申语,意思是"great land""that which the seas breaks against""伟大的土地""分割海的地方" 
ARIZONA(亚利桑那):来源于印第安语 "Arimnac",意思是"hule spring""小泉水" 
ARKANSAS(阿肯色):来源于印第安语,意思是"a breeze near the ground""靠近地面的微风" 
CALIFORNIA(加利福尼亚):来源于法语 "Califerne",是一部11世纪法国史诗中所想象的地方。 
COLORADO(科罗拉多):来源于西班牙语,意思是"ruddy""red""红色的" 
CONNETICUT(康涅狄格):来源于印第安语,意思是"beside the long tidal river", "在长长的潮河旁" 
DELAWARE(德拉华):纪念托马斯·魏斯特爵士"Sir Thomas West, Lord De La Warr",德拉华河和德拉华湾也以此命名。 
FRORIDA(佛罗里达):来源于西班牙语,意思是"feast flowers(Easter)""花的节日",即复活节。 
GEORGIA(乔治亚):纪念英国的乔治二世皇帝。In honor of George II of England. 
HAWAII(夏威夷):来源不确定。这个群岛可能是以其发现者夏威夷·罗亚(Hawaii Loa) 命名,也可能以传统的波利尼西亚人的家乡Hawaii or Hawaiki命名。 
IDAHO(爱达荷):来源于印第安语,意思是:"gem of the mountains", "山中的宝石";另一种说法的意思是"Good morning""早上好" 
ILLINOIS(伊利诺):来源于印第安语加上法语后缀,意思是"tribe of superior men""贵人的土地" 
INDIANA(印第安纳):来源于印第安语,意思是:"land of Indians""印第安人的土地" 
IOWA(依阿华):来源于印第安语,意思是"the beatiful land""这块美丽的地方",另一种说法是"the sleepy ones""爱睡觉的人们" 
KANSAS(堪萨斯):来源于苏族印第安语,意思是"people of the south wind", "南风的人们" 
KENTUCKY(肯塔基):来源于易洛魁印第安语"Ken-tah-ten",意思是"land of tomorrow"or"the dark or bolldy ground""希望的土地",或"黑色的沃上" 
LOUISIANA(路易斯安那):纪念法国路易十四世皇帝,"In honor of Louis XIV fo France". 
MAINE(缅因):纪念英国查理一世皇后海丽塔·玛丽亚,"Henrietta Maria, Queen fo Charles I of England"据说她拥有过法国的缅因省,"Theprovince of Mayne in France" 
MARYLAND(马里兰):纪念英国查理一世皇后海丽塔·玛丽"In honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I of England". 
MASSACHUSETTS(麻萨诸塞):来源于印第安语,意思是"great mountain place""伟大的山地" 
MICHIGAN(密执安):来源于印第安语,意思是"great lake"or"big water""大湖" 
MINNESOTA(明尼苏达):来源于达科他印第安语,意思是"sky-tinted water","天色的水域" 
MISSISSIPPI(密西西比):来源于印第安语,意思是"father of waters""水之父" 
MISSOURI(密苏里):来源于印第安语意思是"town of the Large canoes""大独木舟之乡" 
MONTANA(蒙大拿):由J.M.阿西从拉丁词典中选的词,是拉丁化的西班牙语,意思不详。 
NEBRASKA(内布拉斯加):来源于澳托印第安语,意思是"flat water""平川之水" 
NEVADA(内华达):来源于西班牙语,意思是"snow-capped""雪山" 
NEW HAMPSHIRE(新罕布什尔):来源于英国的罕布什尔郡,"Hampshire" 
NEW JERSEY(新泽西):来源于海峡的泽西岛,"the Channel Isle of Jersey" 
NEW MEXICO(新墨西哥):来源于墨西哥,"the country of Mexico" 
NEW YORK(纽约):纪念英国的约克公爵,"In honor of the English Duke of York" 
NORTH CAROLINA(北卡罗来纳):纪念英国的查理一世,"In honor of Charles I of England". 
NORTH DAKOTA(北达科他):来源于达科他印第安语,意思是"allies"or"leagued""同盟""联盟" 
OHIO(俄亥俄):来源于印第安语,意思是"great river""大河" 
OKLAHOMA(俄克拉荷马):来源于巧克陶印第安语,意思是"red people""红种人" 
OREGON(俄勒冈):来源不明。人们一般认为这个名字第一次在1778年由乔那森·卡佛(Jonathan Carver)使用,取自于英国军官罗伯特·罗杰斯(Robert Rogers)之书。 
PENNSYLVANIA(宾夕法尼亚):纪念维廉·宾爵士"Sir William Penn”,意思是"penn‘s Woodland""宾的树林" 
RHODE ISLAND(罗德岛):来源于希腊的罗德岛,"the Greek Island of Rhodes" 
SOUTH CAROLINA(南卡罗来纳):纪念英国的查理一世皇帝,"In honor of Charles I of England" 
SOUTH DAKOTA(南达科他):同北达科他。 
TENNESSEE(田纳西):来源于柴罗基印第安语,意思是:"the vines of the big bend""大弯的蔓藤" 
TEXAS(德克萨斯):来源于印第安语,意思是"friends""朋友" 
UTAH(犹他):来源于犹特印第安语,意思是"people of the mountains""山里人" 
VERMONT(佛蒙特):来源于法语"vert mont",意思是"green mountain""绿山" 
VIRGINIA(佛吉尼亚):纪念伊丽莎白一世英国圣洁女皇,"In honor of Elizabeth I‘Virgin Queen‘ of England" 
WASHINGTON(华盛顿):纪念乔治·华盛顿,"In honor of George Washington" 
WEST VIRGINIA(西佛吉尼亚):同佛吉尼亚。 
WISCONSIN(威斯康辛):法语化的印第安语,意思不详。 
WYOMING(怀俄明):德拉华印第安语,意思是"mountains and valleys alternating""起伏的山谷"
转自http://www.4ewriting.com/bbs/dispbbs.asp?boardID=5&ID=13240
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2008-9-6 15:20 | [原创]To the Niagara Falls

4月23日

Trip to Niagara Falls

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As agreed a few weeks ago with Barb and Rod, on April 20, Rod would take us to the Grand Falls. The reason that this day was chosen is that I will be leaving soon for Alaska and then back to China. I know Rod was very busy for travelling a lot to other countries or other parts of America. On April 21, he would fly to Peru on business. So I felt very grateful to them.
The day before I got a message from them saying that Rod would go to the house we live in at 9 am and reminding us to take necessary items. I marvelled at Rod and Barb's considerateness.

On April 20, I got up early and quickly packed my clothes, food, and bottled water. At 9:5, Rod came, with beaming smile as always seen on his face. We put our bags in the trunk and are ready to go. 

On the road, Rod talked all the time with me, asking me a lot of questions about China and I've never met one that was so easy to accept new things and so keen to know new things. We talked what had happened in China, accusing CNN liar, talked about political situation,  finding either with advantages and disadvantages, talked about people, commenting that Americans are in fact  very stubbern in keeping their own way, refusing to make changes and to accept different things. He even asked questions about buying houses in the countryside. It took me a long time to explain the housing policy as to the rural houses and urban houses. When I stressed that China has a large population and limited farming land, he nodded and understood why our government takes that kind of policy.

On the road I was amazed at the trees along the highway.

Two hours later, we came to a place to have lunch at Mcdonald's. After that we took a few pictures.
After another two hours' ride, we passed Buffalo, made a few turns and came to the Grand FAlls. Tourists there were not as I had imagined. in total no more than 100 in sight. On this side we couldn't see the whole sight of the falls, and if standing on the other side in CAnada, it would be more grandiose and impressive. 

We had planned to have a cruise in the river to go near the mist where water fell down, but were told the cruise wouldn't open until the mid of May due to iceburgs on the surface of water. Yes, I saw huge chunks of ice standing along two sides of the river. But I couldn't feel the coldness at all. It is said the water only has a temperature difference no more than 5 degrees in winter and summer. no wonder there was still ice while air was warm. So, people were in shorts, but in the river, winter still lingered on. In the following picture, birds are standing on ice. 

Though we couldn't make the cruise on water, we came down to the bottom 175 feet from the surface, looking up to the falls completely on American side. It is interesting that people called the falls American FAlls, and I don't know if Canadians call it Canadian falls.

Later we went up and to the edge of the falls. I leaned on the bars and told Rod, it is only a meter's distance between life and death. He said yes. Life can disappear in an instant and no one knows when.

On the way back I was very sleepy due to the cold I caught. It seemed my cold got worse. When we arrived at our house, it was 10 pm. So on the road, we spent nearly 10 hours, at the falls, we stayed only for 4 hours. But the experiences to chat, to see the sights along were also a memorable part of the trip.


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Since I arrived US, I haven't made any trip outside the city. In my schedule, Washington has been a must. Now the day came to start for the dream city. But first let me say something about the preparation. I booked greyhound (a bus line) ticket two weeks ahead, only 75 dollars for a round trip, reseaved a room at Comfort Inn, at 79 dollars(a single room) a night. I bought some food and a bottle of water at a grocery store. Then at about 8 pm, I carried my bag and got on the road.
At I was told, I took a bus and got off at Ground Street. Though I was told that the Station was a little far from the bus stop, never thought that it might take me so much long a time. I took nearly an hour to find the place. What funny thing was, when I asked a black guy about greyhound station, he just told me to climb up the stairs. I did as he told, but finding metro station there. So I got down and asked a woman, who told the right direction.
When I got the station I went to ticket center to get my reserved tickets. Now trouble came. I asked the black woman for two tickets, one for washington tonight, one for new york a few days later since both had been reserved on the net. She gave one envelope with tickets. I asked her if all my tickets were in, she said yes. However, when I found a place, put down my bag, opened the envelope, I was shocked she gave me only one set of tickets, which was for new york, scheduled next week. Now I began to experience the first prejudice in America, by a black woman. I went to her again and asked her if she made a mistake, she asked to wait for a while. I waited for 20 minutes but still couldn't see any sign of her willingness to serve me. I raised my voice and asked her when she would give me another set of tickets. She came to me and asked how she could give me two sets of ticket since I was travelling alone. How rediculous. I showed her my reservation sheets. She was silenced and went back to type anothe ticket for me. but without a sorry. I felt a little angry and decided to write a complaint to express my protest.
Now my experience in Washington. the greyhound bus left pittsburgh at 11:30 pm and arrived 5:45. I sat on the pew and dozed off until 7 am. Then I walked from the bus station to capitol hill a few miles away, where I waited in line waiting to be admitted into the capitol building. But in the end, I didn't go in since it was not allowed to take a big bag.
I just walked around the capitol and took some pictures. Here is one.   


I saw beautiful scenes with green lawn, blooming cherry flowers, clear and blue sky. Then along the avenue I walked to Washington Monument, to the White House, about 200 meters away separated by fence, then to Lincoln Memorial, to Korean War memorial.I had very strange feeling to see the buildings, people, traffics. Those that had only appeared in TV were just beside me, so real, so clear, but still appeared remote. In the afternoon, I walked across Arlington Bridge to Arlington Cemetary and walked around.
I had a very hard time to find the hotel reserved online. People were very helpful. But sometimes when they were not sure they still told me to go this way or that way. So when I just got out of the metro at East Falls Church Station, where I should have taken a bus,or taxi, a girl told me to go ahead and turn left to Arlington Ave. Then I asked a man at a gas station, and was told to go back to the Metro station. I felt puzzled and asked another guy, who told me to go the opposite direction. Thus, I walked for a few blocks until at a bus stop I met a black woman waiting for bus. She said the hotel was not far from where she lives and told me that I shouldn't have walked so far. So this time I just followed her on a bus, to the metro, change bus, some time later,  change the third bus. I got to the hotel at last.
It was a very good hotel, and the room was big, with double bed, TV refrigerator, bathroom, and pretty view out of the window. What amazed me most was the size of the bed. Since I reserved a single room, I didn't realize that they arranged me into a double room (fortunately I didn't have to pay double). The bed was big enough to sleep four adults and infact, I found 5 pillows on the bed. Just look:
 
at my I was so tired that I just ate some food, had a shower and slept until 9 am the next day.
At 11, I took a taxi to the metro station. It took me 10 dollars in total plus a tip. not bad. I really didn't want to walk for so long.
Then I got on the metro, changed once and arrived at the pentagon, where only construction sites and a low huge heavily guarded building could be seen. Since I saw no photograpy sign when I came out of the metro station, I had much trouble spared. Just at the guard post to the entrance, I met three Chinese guys who were trying to explain something to the guard.  But the guard just opened their camera and took out the memory chip. The guard also checked my camera and returned it to me with "have a good trip". The building was not allowed. So I just looked around for a while and left for Smithsonian Museum.
I entered the Air and Space Museum and took a lot of pictures for planes, rockets, and a lot of gadgets. I even spent 8.50 dollars and enjoyed a dome movie called cosmic collission. The scene was really huge and shocking.
At 4 pm, I left the museum and decided to go to Chinatown. It was not difficult for me to reach the place. There I took some pictures, ate some Chinese food (a bowl of egg drop soup, a plate of doubled cooked pork and a bowl of rice, 14 dollars in total including tip. not bad) at a Chinese restaurant. Only 30 meters from the restaurant was the metro station (Gallery PL-Chinatown Station), I took the metro there and got off  at Union Station(, which is 15 minutes' walk from greyhound station). The bus left at 1 am the next morning, so I waited for 5 hours there.
The trip back was as smooth as the other one. Since it was so early in the morning that it was still dark, I didn't risk to walk to the bus stop a few hundred meters away. Instead I took taxi to my dorm and was charged 15 dollars, higher than i heard of. 
 


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